Midterm - Chapter 3

What Games Exist?

Why do you want to create a game?

What purpose will it serve?

- Entertainment
Entertainment games entertain the players.

- Community-Building
Community-Building games focus on social interaction.

- Education
Education games teach while they entertain.

- Recruitment and Training (Example: serious games)
Recruitment and Training games are used by the military for recruitment and training purposes.

- Marketing and Advertising
Marketing and Advertising games market a product or service to consumers.

What is a Platform?

-a Platform is something that can run applications. (ex. video games)

Some of the Platforms we discussed in Ch. 3 are

-Arcade
Arcade games are stand alone game systems found in public venues. Most games are played standing up- with player controls consisting of buttons, joysticks, or a combination.

-Console
Console systems are usually played at home, hooked up to a television set. The systems support four controllers.

-PC/Computer
PC/Computer games are played on the PC/computer.

-Online
Online games are played on a computer platform or through a console system connected to the Internet. Players need an Internet connection to play, and game information might be stored on a server.
-Client-Server: In the client-server model, each player runs a client program on their computer that communicates with a server that stores the game. The client represents the game to the players.
-Peer-to-Peer: In a peer-to-peer model, all player computers communicate directly with each other, utilized by many strategy and action games.

-Handheld
Handheld devices are portable and makes it convenient for them to be taken with the player almost anywhere.

-Table Top
Table-top games refer to the traditional analog game platform- including games that might be played on a tabletop.

Time Interval

Time intervals are time-dependent elements that affect the pacing of a game. This pacing affects whether the game is played reflexively or reflectively.

-Turn-Based
Turn-based games mean that each player may take a turn. Usually the time allotted for each turn is unlimited. Players have as much time as they need to plan their moves and decide how to play their hand- allowing for reflective thought. (ex. Pool,checkers)

-Real-Time
Real-time games have no time interval between turns. In fact, there are no turns at all. Real-time games require having quick physical reflexes, as opposed to the reflective thought required for turn-based games.(ex.marathon races)

-Time-Limited
A time-limited game is a compromise between turn-based and real-time games. Time-limited games limit the time each player has for their turn.

Player Mode

Player mode directly correlates to the number of people playing the game.

-Single-Player
Only one person can play a single-player game. Any additional players (usually opponents) in the game are known as artificial intelligence (AI) characters or non-player characters (NPCs).

-Two-Player
Two-player (also known as head-to-head) games initially evolved from single-player arcade games. Players took turns playing against the game itself. The game kept track of both players' scores and compared the two to determine the winner. Players did not compete against each other onscreen. It wasn't until Double Dragon that a two-player arcade game had a real-time interval.

-Local Multiplayer
In local player mode, all players sit in the same space and play the game on the same machine- sharing the same screen using separate input devices (controllers). Players can also engage in local play on a personal computer- which involves not only sharing a screen, but input devices as well.

-LAN-Based Multiplayer
LAN-based games allow players to share the game on a local area network (LAN) without sharing the screen or input device.

Online Multiplayer
Online games represent a form of networked play- where players connect their computers to a network and share the game. In online games, the network is the global Internet.
-PvP (Player vs. Player): Refers to instances in MMOGs (massively multiplayer online games) in which players compete against each other.

Genres

Genres are broad categories of games that share similar presentation, gameplay, and story-telling elements. Games can sometimes share elements from multiple genres that are or were considered distinct, often being considered a hybrid genre. An example is Deus Ex, which combines character progression through increases in skills and abilities, as well as varied interactions with NPCs, which are elements that are generally considered part of the RPG genre with the mechanics of the FPS genre, such as the first-person perspective and real-time combat.

-Action
A genre where the gameplay is mostly based on hand-eye coordination, consisting of multiple subgenres.

— Platformers, where the player is trying to navigate an environment, avoiding obstacles and enemies, and often collecting items that may or may not have gameplay effects. Includes games like the Mario Bros games, Donkey Kong, Jak and Dexter, and others.

— Shooters, where the player is primarily fighting enemies with weapons that shoot projectiles. These range from overhead and sidescrolling shooters such as Galaga and Einhänder to first-person shooters(FPSes), such as Doom, System Shock, Half-Life, and Call of Duty.

— Racing games, where the player controls a character, usually a vehicle of some sort, and attempts to beat the other characters in a race.

— Fighting games, where the player controls a character that usually fights with unarmed or melee combat against other characters, often against another player.

- Adventure
A genre where the gameplay tends to involve exploration and abstract puzzle-solving in order to progress.

- Action Adventure
A type of hybrid genre that includes elements from the action and adventure genres. An example would be any of the Zelda or Metroid games, which feature exploration and puzzle-solving combined with action such as shooting and platforming or melee combat.

- Casino games
Not surprisingly, these games feature the types of games seen in casinos. An example is Casino Kid.

Genres
Game genres are categories based on a combination of subject matter, setting, screen presentation/format, player perspective, and game-playing strategies.
1. Action
The action genre has been around since the arcade craze. Almost every arcade game is an action game. The goal of most action games involve quickly destroying your enemies, while avoiding being destroyed yourself. Examples are Pacman, Asteroids, Galaga, Pong, etc.
2. Platformers:
The platformer action sub-genre focuses on players moving quickly through and environment- often jumping and dodging to avoid obstacles, and sometimes collecting items along the way. Examples are Donkey Kong, Sonic the Hedgehog, Mario, etc.
3. Shooters
The shooter action sub-genre focuses on combat between a player and the other characters in the game world- usually in the form of shooting with guns and other weapons controlled by the character’s hands.
a) First-Person
The player has a first-person perspective and cannot see his or her character onscreen. The player can see the character’s weapons, as well as other characters in the game.
b) Third-Person
Third-person shooters allow players to see their characters, along with the rest of the game world.
4. Racing
Racing games involves the player’s vehicle racing one or more opponents on a variety of roads or terrains. The player attempts to make the vehicle move as quickly as possible without losing control of it. Examples are Test Drive, Forza Motorsport, iRacing, etc.
5. Fighting
Fighting games are two-person games in which each player controls a figure on screen and uses a combination of moves to attack the opponent and to defend against the opponent’s attacks. Examples are Street Fighter, Tekken, Mortal Kombat, etc.
6. Adventure
Adventure games have an important quality: an illusion of freedom of choice. Characteristics include exploration, collecting, puzzle-solving, navigating mazes, and decoding messages. Examples are Zork, Colossal Cave, etc.
7. Action-Adventure
The action-adventure genre is the only hybrid genre that has distinguished itself as an accepted genre in its own right. The action component allows for quick, reflexive movements as the character dodges and hunts down enemies- while the action component adds conceptual puzzles and story elements to the game. Examples are Castle Wolfenstein, Legend of Zelda, and Tomb Raider.
8. Casino
Casino games are often electronic versions of popular games- such as roulette, craps, poker, blackjack, and slot machines- found in on-ground casinos.
9. Puzzle
A puzzle game focuses on the player solving a puzzle of series of puzzles without controlling a character. There is little or no story surrounding puzzle games. Examples are Tetris, Bejeweled, Collapse, etc.
10. Role-Playing Games
Role-playing games are characterized by containing strong storylines- but RPGs also contain player-characters that improve throughout the course of the game. RPG players usually experience close emotional involvement with their characters. Themes in RPGs are usually variations on “save the world”. The characters in RPGs are often termed heroes. Examples are Elder Scrolls, Dungeon Seige, and Star War Galaxies.
11. Simulations
Simulations attempt to replicate systems, machines, and experiences using real-world rules.
a) Vehicles Simulation (Construction & Management):
The player usually operates complicated machinery, such as Flight Simulator, etc.
b) Process Simulation:
Involves real-world systems or processes such as Sim City, Rollercoaster Tycoon, etc., or “God” games, like Black & White, etc.
c) Sports & Participatory Simulation
Engages the player to experience the simulation as a participant within it, like Madden, NCAA, etc.
12. Strategy
Players are required to manage a limited set of resources to achieve an particular goal.
a) Turn-based strategy
Encourages players to take time to think strategically before making decisions. Civilization is an example.
b) Real-time strategy
Incorporates a real-time interval. Command and Conquer is an example.
c) MMOGs
Massively-multiplayer online games, such as World of Warcraft (WoW).
d) MMORPGs
Massively-multiplayer role-playing games

Targeting Markets

- Who do you want to reach?
This is your Target Market
- Consider:
Applications
Genres
Styles
Platforms
Demographics/Generations
Trends
Geography
Laws/Rating/Norms
- What does all of this amount to?
The beginning of your game concept

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